Case Reviews and Summary Reports

In order to provide each case with the comprehensive review and attention to detail it deserves, we limit the number of cases we accept each quarter. Please keep these limitations in mind when requesting a review with anticipated completion dates.

It should be noted that data related to Sleep Forensics Criminal Data has been presented by Michel A. Cramer Bornemann, MD for scientific peer review at the following International Scientific and Medical Conferences.


“Neurobehavioral Investigation- Implications for Mens Rea”
Symposium “Consciousness, Sleep, and the Law”
London, England, Sept. 21, 2009

“Zolpidem (AmbienTM) Toxicity and Evaluation”,
Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) Symposium,
Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (MnBCA)
Saint Paul, Minnesota, Jan. 6, 2010

“SLEEP FORENSICS- A WALK ON THE WILD SIDE… OR AN AVENUE FOR POST-MARKETING ANALYSIS OF ZOLPIDEM?”, Michel A. Cramer Bornemann, Mark W. Mahowald, Carlos H. Schenck, WorldSleep2011, 6th Congress of the World Federation of Sleep Research and Sleep Medicine Societies, Kyoto, Japan, Oct. 16-20, 2011

“Sexsomnia and Neurobehavioral Attributes in Sleep Forensics”, 33rd International Congress of Mental Health and Law, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 2013

“Sexsomnia and Sleep Forensics- The Interface Between Sleep-Related Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and the Law”, APSS SLEEP 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota, June 2 – 4 2014

Invited speaker on “Sleep Forensics”, Sleep Medicine CME Conference, Harvard Medical School, Fall 2017 & 2018

Keynote speaker on “Sleep Forensics- the Neuroscience of Sleep-Related Violence”, 6th Federation of Southeast Asian Sleep Medicine Congress, Jakarta, Indonesia, September 2021


“A Review of Sleep-Related Violence: The Demographics of Sleep Forensics Referrals to a Single Center”,
CHEST 2019; 155(5):1059-1066

“Sleep Forensics: Criminal Culpability for Sleep-Related Violence”,
PART II • Section 9, Chapter 65 Legal Topics in Sleep Medicine

The following statistics are from reviewed cases accepted by members of Sleep Forensics Associates.

Subtypes of Sleep-Related Conditions in Accepted Cases as Retained by a Sleep Forensics Medical Expert

Since 2006, SFA has been involved with well over 400 medico-legal case referrals. Case referrals come not only from across the USA and Canada but across the globe including remote locations as New Zealand and Israel. Examples of common Sleep Disorder subtypes referred for investigations have included:

Sleep-related abnormal sexual behavior (sexsomnia)
Disorders of arousal
Parasomnia pseudo-suicide
Sleep driving
Pharmaceutical toxicity
Zolpidem side effects
Zaleplon effects
Sleep deprivation

Sleep Forensics Cases (2006-2017)

Sleep Forensics Cases (2006-2017) cases, Summary of Presenting Legal Charges, N = 351 (23 Categories) cases, Sexual Assault = 145 cases, Homicide = 57 cases, DUI (driving under the influence) = 48 cases, Assault = 25 cases, Child Abuse = 14 cases, Life Insurance = 8 cases, Burglary = 7 cases, Malpractice = 7 cases, Gross Negligence = 6 cases, Wrongful Death = 5 cases, Employment Termination = 4 cases, Insurance Fraud = 4 cases, Child Custody = 3 cases, Zolpidem Toxicology = 3 cases, Antitrust = 3 cases, Public Indecency = 3 cases, Child Protection Agency = 2 cases, Amend Death Certificate = 2 cases, Vehicular Homicide = 1 case, Arson = 1 case, Illegal Firearms Discharge = 1 case, Professional Misconduct = 1 case, Larceny = 1 case